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The Victorian era and Edwardian era saw a heightened increase of interest in fairies. The Celtic Revival cast fairies as part of Ireland's cultural heritage.
Carole Silvers and others suggested this fascination of English antiquarians arose from a reaction to greater industrialization and loss of older folk ways.
Fairies are generally described as human in appearance and having magical powers. Diminutive fairies of various kinds have been reported through centuries, ranging from quite tiny to the size of a human.
Some depictions of fairies show them with footwear, others as barefoot. Wings, while common in Victorian and later artworks, are rare in folklore; fairies flew by means of magic, sometimes perched on ragwort stems or the backs of birds.
Early modern fairies does not derive from a single origin; the term is a conflation of disparate elements from folk belief sources, influenced by literature and speculation.
The Scandinavian elves also served as an influence. Folklorists and mythologists have variously depicted fairies as: the unworthy dead, the children of Eve , a kind of demon , a species independent of humans, an older race of humans, and fallen angels.
Folklorists have suggested that 'fairies' arose from various earlier beliefs, which lost currency with the advent of Christianity.
A Christian tenet held that fairies were a class of "demoted" angels. King James , in his dissertation Daemonologie , stated the term "faries" referred to illusory spirits demonic entities that prophesied to, consorted with, and transported the individuals they served; in medieval times, a witch or sorcerer who had a pact with a familiar spirit might receive these services.
In England's Theosophist circles of the 19th century, a belief in the "angelic" nature of fairies was reported. The more Earthbound Devas included nature spirits , elementals , and fairies ,  which were described as appearing in the form of colored flames, roughly the size of a human.
Gardner had likened fairies to butterflies, whose function was to provide an essential link between the energy of the sun and the plants of Earth, describing them as having no clean-cut shape At one time it was thought that fairies were originally worshiped as deities, such as nymphs and tree spirits,  and with the burgeoning predominance of the Christian Church , reverence for these deities carried on, but in a dwindling state of perceived power.
Many deprecated deities of older folklore and myth were repurposed as fairies in Victorian fiction See the works of W.
Yeats for examples. A recorded Christian belief of the 17th century cast all fairies as demons. Lewis cast as a politic disassociation from faeries.
This contentious environment of thought contributed to the modern meaning of 'fairies'. One belief held that fairies were spirits of the dead.
There is an outdated theory that fairy folklore evolved from folk memories of a prehistoric race: newcomers superseded a body of earlier human or humanoid peoples, and the memories of this defeated race developed into modern conceptions of fairies.
Proponents find support in the tradition of cold iron as a charm against fairies, viewed as a cultural memory of invaders with iron weapons displacing peoples who had just stone, bone, wood, etc.
In folklore, flint arrowheads from the Stone Age were attributed to the fairies as " elfshot ",  while their green clothing and underground homes spoke to a need for camouflage and covert shelter from hostile humans, their magic a necessary skill for combating those with superior weaponry.
In a Victorian tenet of evolution, mythic cannibalism among ogres was attributed to memories of more savage races, practising alongside "superior" races of more refined sensibilities.
A theory that fairies, et al. Much folklore of fairies involves methods of protecting oneself from their malice, by means such as cold iron, charms see amulet , talisman of rowan trees or various herbs , or simply shunning locations "known" to be theirs, ergo avoiding offending any fairies.
More dangerous behaviors were also attributed to fairies; any form of sudden death might have stemmed from a fairy kidnapping, the evident corpse a magical replica of wood.
In Scottish folklore , fairies are divided into the Seelie Court more beneficently inclined, but still dangerous , and the Unseelie Court more malicious.
While fairies of the Seelie Court enjoyed playing generally harmless pranks on humans, those of the Unseelie Court often brought harm to humans for entertainment.
Trooping fairies refers to those who appear in groups and might form settlements, as opposed to solitary fairies, who do not live or associate with others of their kind.
In this context, the term fairy is usually held in a wider sense, including various similar beings, such as dwarves and elves of Germanic folklore.
A considerable amount of lore about fairies revolves around changelings , fairies left in the place of stolen humans. In pre-industrial Europe, a peasant family's subsistence frequently depended upon the productive labor of each member, and a person who was a permanent drain on the family's scarce resources could pose a threat to the survival of the entire family.
In terms of protective charms, wearing clothing inside out,  church bells, St. John's wort , and four-leaf clovers are regarded as effective.
In Newfoundland folklore, the most popular type of fairy protection is bread, varying from stale bread to hard tack or a slice of fresh homemade bread.
Bread is associated with the home and the hearth, as well as with industry and the taming of nature, and as such, seems to be disliked by some types of fairies.
On the other hand, in much of the Celtic folklore , baked goods are a traditional offering to the folk, as are cream and butter. This may be a distinguishing trait between the Seelie Court from the Unseelie Court, such that fairies use them to protect themselves from more wicked members of their race.
While many fairies will confuse travelers on the path, the will-o'-the-wisp can be avoided by not following it.
Certain locations, known to be haunts of fairies, are to be avoided; C. Lewis reported hearing of a cottage more feared for its reported fairies than its reported ghost.
Paths that the fairies travel are also wise to avoid. Home-owners have knocked corners from houses because the corner blocked the fairy path,  and cottages have been built with the front and back doors in line, so that the owners could, in need, leave them both open and let the fairies troop through all night.
Other actions were believed to offend fairies. Brownies were known to be driven off by being given clothing, though some folktales recounted that they were offended by the inferior quality of the garments given, and others merely stated it, some even recounting that the brownie was delighted with the gift and left with it.
Millers were thought by the Scots to be "no canny", owing to their ability to control the forces of nature, such as fire in the kiln, water in the burn, and for being able to set machinery a-whirring.
Superstitious communities sometimes believed that the miller must be in league with the fairies. In Scotland, fairies were often mischievous and to be feared.
No one dared to set foot in the mill or kiln at night, as it was known that the fairies brought their corn to be milled after dark.
So long as the locals believed this, the miller could sleep secure in the knowledge that his stores were not being robbed. John Fraser, the miller of Whitehill, claimed to have hidden and watched the fairies trying unsuccessfully to work the mill.
He said he decided to come out of hiding and help them, upon which one of the fairy women gave him a gowpen double handful of meal and told him to put it in his empty girnal store , saying that the store would remain full for a long time, no matter how much he took out.
It is also believed that to know the name of a particular fairy, a person could summon it and force it to do their bidding. They found some tales were older than the earliest literary records, with one dating back to the Bronze Age.
And a folk tale called The Smith And The Devil, about a blacksmith selling his soul in a pact with the Devil in order to gain supernatural abilities, was estimated to go back 6, years to the Bronze Age.
A blacksmith strikes a deal with a malevolent supernatural being, such as the Devil, Death or a genie. He then uses this power to stick the villain to an immovable object, such as a tree, to renege on his side of the bargain.
This basic plot is stable throughout the Indo-European speaking world, from India to Scandinavia, according to the research.
The study said this tale could be traced back to the Proto-Indo-European society when metallurgy likely existed and there was archaeological and genetic evidence of massive territorial expansions by nomadic tribes from the Pontic steppe the northern shores of the Black Sea between 5, and 6, years ago.
However, John Lindow, a folklorist at the University of California, Berkeley, casts doubt on the theory in Science News , saying the Proto-Indo-European vocabulary for working with metal was limited and the word "smith" might not have existed.
If true, that would mean the version of "The Smith and the Devil" used in the study may not be that old, he said.
Dr Tehrani, who worked with folklorist Sara Graca Da Silva, from the New University of Lisbon, said: "We find it pretty remarkable these stories have survived without being written.
The end. Historians think the story was written as a response to the famine in Europe during the 14th century, when lots of parents abandoned their children and left them to starve to death.
Original plot : In the Brothers Grimm version of this weirdo story, a miller makes a deal with the king, saying his daughter can weave straw into gold.
The king is then like, "Sure, I'll take that deal. But if she can't do it, I get to kill her. Original plot : In the Brothers Grimm iteration of the tale, the queen doesn't just try to kill Snow White -- no, that'd be way too boring for 18th century German people.